Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) identifies, quantifies and evaluates the environmental impacts (inputs and outputs) of a product, service or activity, from cradle to grave.
Cradle-to-Grave: Assessment from resource extraction (’cradle’) to use phase and disposal phase (’grave’). e.g. paper
Cradle-to-Gate: Partial product life cycle from resource extraction (cradle) to the factory gate (i.e., before it is transported to the consumer)
Cradle-to-cradle or closed loop production: Where the end-of-life disposal step for the product is a recycling process.
Gate-to-Gate: Partial LCA looking at only one value-added process in the entire production chain.
Well-to-Wheel: Specific LCA used for transport fuels and vehicles.
Five Steps of a Product Lifecycle (Cradle-to-Grave):
Raw Material Extraction
Manufacturing and Processing
Usage and Retail
Solved Example: 17-1-01
Which of the following gas produces green house effect? (UP TGT Biology 2016)
Correct Answer: A
Understand the importance of sustainability for engineers.
Engineers should design and manufacture products, industrial plants, transportation, and infrastructure in such a way that natural resources and environment quality will not cross harmful level for future generations. Sustainability has three domains:
Green engineering is a subset of sustainable engineering. Green engineering involves four basic approaches to improve processes and products to make them more efficient from an environmental standpoint.
Solved Example: 18-1-01
The concept of sustainable development is related to: (REET 2012 Level - II Social Studies)
A. Maximum use of resources
B. The conservation of resources
C. Industrial use of resources
D. Development of power resources
Correct Answer: B
Solved Example: 18-1-02
Which of the following statements best explains the concept of sustainable development? (UGC NET June 2019 Shift II)
A. Use of natural resources minimally
B. Use of natural resources for our benefit
C. Use of natural resources judiciously so that they are available for future generations
D. Preserve our natural resources for our future generation
Correct Answer: C